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Screening tests are laboratory tests that help to identify people with increased risk for a condition or disease before they have symptoms or even realize they may be at risk so that preventive measures can be taken. They are an important part of preventive health care.
Screening tests help detect disease in its earliest and most treatable stages. Therefore, they are most valuable when they are used to screen for diseases that are both serious and treatable, so that there is a benefit to detecting the disease before symptoms begin. They should be sensitive - that is, able to correctly identify those individuals who have a given disease.
Many routine tests performed at regular health exams are screening tests. Cholesterol testing and Pap smears for women are examples. Newborns are screened for a variety of conditions at birth. A positive screening test often requires further testing with a more specific test. This is important in order to correctly exclude those individuals who do not have the given disease or to confirm a diagnosis.
A diagnostic test may be used for screening purposes, but a diagnostic test is generally used to confirm a diagnosis in someone who has s, symptoms, or other evidence of a particular disease. You can safeguard and enhance your health, perhaps for many decades, by having certain screening tests a few times in your 20s. The tests are used for early detection of some of the more common and potentially serious diseases occurring in adults, such as sexually transmitted diseasescancersdiabetesand heart disease.
Screening tests can find certain conditions in their earliest and most treatable stages, even before you notice symptoms.
With information from screening tests, your healthcare provider can work with you to develop preventive measures that will help you remain healthier in your later years. For example, a routine cholesterol test could reveal your risk of developing heart disease, allowing you to take preventive measures—like lifestyle changes—before you develop a serious condition.
The sections below provide information on the screening tests suggested for young adults, up to 29 years old. They summarize the recommendations from various authorities, and there is consensus in many areas, but not all. Therefore, when discussing screening with your healthcare provider and making decisions about testing, it is important to consider your individual health situation and risk factors. For more information on preventive medicine and steps you can take to keep you and your family healthy, read Wellness and Prevention in an Era of Patient Responsibility.
Not everyone in this age group may need screening for every condition listed here. Read the sections below to learn more about each condition and to determine if screening may be appropriate for you or your family member. You should discuss screening options with your health care practitioner. Beginning in childhood, the waxy substance called cholesterol and other fatty substances known as lipids start to build up in the arteries, hardening into plaques that narrow the passageway. During adulthood, plaque buildup and resulting health problems occur not only in arteries supplying blood to the heart muscle but in arteries throughout the body a problem known as atherosclerosis.
For both men and women in 19yo looking for an older man United States, the one cause of death is heart diseaseand the amount of cholesterol in the blood greatly affects a person's chances of suffering from it. Monitoring and maintaining healthy levels of cholesterol are important in staying healthy. Screening for high cholesterol, typically with a lipid profileis important because there are usually no symptoms. Typically, fasting for hours before having the blood sample drawn is required; only water is permitted.
However, some laboratories offer non-fasting lipid profiles. In particular, children and teens may have testing done without fasting. Since screening recommendations are not always consistent between healthcare organizations, it's important to work with your healthcare provider to develop a cholesterol-screening plan that is right for you. This is based on a lack of evidence that screening before age 40 has an effect on cardiovascular health. The USPSTF advises healthcare practitioners and their patients to go beyond screening for high cholesterol and evaluate a person's overall risk for heart disease to determine who may benefit from treatment with cholesterol-lowering statins.
Lipid disorders in adults cholesterol, dyslipidemia : Screening. Preventive Services Task Force.
Accessed June High cholesterol risk factors. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. High cholesterol, symptoms and causes. Mayo Clinic. Screening for lipid disorders in children and adolescents. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. June JAMA ; 19 Periodicity schedule. American Academy of Pediatrics. Swift, D. Medscape, News and Perspective.
Reviewed April. How to get your cholesterol tested. American Heart Association. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States and is becoming more common at younger ages.
Of these, 4. While most cases of type 1 diabetes are diagnosed in those under the age of 18, the s and symptoms often develop rapidly and the diagnosis is often made in an emergency room setting. Thus, screening for type 1 diabetes is not necessary. On the other hand, some youth with type 2 diabetes will have no s or symptoms, especially early in the disease, and screening can be a useful tool.
Unhealthy weight and physical inactivity, both contributing factors, have also become national health problems. It is estimated that Detecting prediabetes allows individuals to take steps to stop or slow the development of type 2 diabetes and its complications.
These complications include heart attackstrokehypertensionblindness and eye problems, kidney diseaseand nervous system maladies.
If any of these initial is abnormal, the test is repeated on another day. If the repeat result is also abnormal, a diagnosis of diabetes is made. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists AACE also recommends diabetes screening for asymptomatic people with these risk factors, as well as those on antipsychotic therapy for schizophrenia or who have severe bipolar disease.
As public health experts work to educate Americans on what to do to avoid diabetes and its serious complications, be aware that healthy eating habits and activity choices can lower your risk of developing type 2 diabetes and of suffering complications from the disease. National diabetes Statistics Report, Genzen, J. Diabetes Mellitus. ARUP Consult. Screening and Monitoring of Prediabetes. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists.
National Diabetes Education Initiative. Obesity is a serious, growing health problem in the U. Over the past 20 years, the rate of obesity has increased steadily throughout the U. Obesity is a complex condition with several contributing factors, such as behaviors, environment and community, underlying diseases, and medications.
According to the CDC, genes also play a role in developing obesity. Obesity is a serious health concern because it decreases overall quality of life and increases the risk of many conditions and diseases, such as:. Calculating your body mass index BMI can be a useful screening tool for assessing your weight status. Please 19yo looking for an older man to web browser that supports iframes to see this CDC widget. While BMI is a useful screening tool, it is not diagnostic of your health status. Your healthcare practitioner will perform various health exams and consider several factors to evaluate your overall health and risk of conditions and diseases.
Regular screening may show that your weight is increasing over time. Your healthcare practitioner may recommend lifestyle changes to reverse this trend. For example, eating a healthy diet and getting regular exercise may help prevent you from becoming overweight or obese.
If you are diagnosed as being overweight or obese, your healthcare practitioner may recommend treatment. Treatment depends on the cause and severity of obesity and may include medications for weight loss. Consultation with a surgeon who specializes in weight loss surgery may be considered by some people. September 18, U. Accessed July Clinical Preventive Service Recommendation: Obesity. Adult Overweight and Obesity. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Overweight and Obesity. Obesity in Adults Almost half of adults in the U. Blood pressure is the force that your blood puts on your artery walls.
High blood pressure, also called hypertension, happens when that force is consistently too high. Detecting and treating high blood pressure is important because it can damage your circulatory system and increases your risk of having a heart attackstrokeand other health problems later in life. Hypertension contributes to one out of every seven deaths in the U. In general, the longer you have high blood pressure, the 19yo looking for an older man the potential for damage to your heart and other organs including your kidneys, brain, and eyes.
While the risk of developing high blood pressure increases with age, young adults should still pay attention to their blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure before age 40 is a risk factor for heart disease later in life. Young adults tend to lag behind older adults in hypertension awareness and treatment. Studies have shown that men age 18 to 39 have especially low rates of high blood pressure awareness. The only way to find out if you have high blood pressure is to get tested. Blood pressure was traditionally measured in healthcare settings using a blood pressure cuff with a pressure gauge sphygmomanometer.
This air-filled cuff wraps around the upper arm and obstructs blood flow. By releasing small amounts of air from the cuff, blood slowly flows back into the arm. The pressure measured inside the cuff is the same as the pressure inside the arteries. There are two s measured for blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure is the pressure when your heart beats. Diastolic pressure is when the heart relaxes between beats and the pressure drops.
Together, they are written as systolic over diastolic pressure. Using a sphygmomanometer is still considered the best method but, more commonly, devices that combine a blood pressure cuff with electronic sensors are used to measure blood pressure. Another method is to have you wear a device that monitors and records the blood pressure at regular intervals during the day to evaluate your blood pressure over time.
This is especially helpful during the diagnostic process and can help rule out "white coat" hypertension, the high measurements that can occur when you are at the doctor's office and not at other times. A single measurement of blood pressure is not enough to diagnose hypertension. Typically, multiple readings are taken on different days.19yo looking for an older man
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